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Revised March 2024
Enslavers Enslaved What We Know – How We Know It
John Richbell While there are no records of John Richbell as an enslaver in Mamaroneck, he was actively involved in the slave trade and owned sugar plantations of Barbados. In 1647, he bought 21 African slaves and took 19 to sell in New England.  In 1661, he purchased from the Siwanoys three necks of land that became Mamaroneck Township. His purpose was to get around English Navigation laws: i.e, to smuggle contraband between England, the West Indies and the Colonies. His widow, Ann Richbell, enslaved one woman, according to the 1698 census.
Captain James Mott Jack, 1 male, name unknown James Mott, of Mamaroneck, appears in Rye records as selling Jack, then 14, to Humphrey Underhill, of Rye, in 1689.  The unnamed male is from the 1698 census. Captain Mott lived in Mamaroneck prior to 1711. (Spikes 1991, p. 21a)
Samuel Palmer 1 female, name unknown From the 1698 census. The Palmer family lands encompass much of what is the Village of Larchmont today. (Spikes 1991, p. 11, with a complete discussion, pp. 9-21a).
Ann Richbell 1 female, name unknown From the 1698 census. Ann Richbell was the widow of John Richbell (above).
Caleb Heathcote 10, names unknown Caleb Heathcote purchased land from Ann Richbell in 1697 that he developed into Scarsdale Manor. While no record shows him as an enslaver, according to Dixon Ryan Fox, there were slave quarters and at least 10 enslaved people in his manor home at Heathcote Hill. (Caleb Heathcote Gentleman Colonist, 1926, p. 111). In 1712, he was both the mayor of New York and the presiding judge in the trial of slaves accused of violent revolt; 24 were executed, and Judge Heathcote was repaid for expenses related to their executions. (Scarsdale Historical Society)
9, names unknown 1712 census lists 84 inhabitants, 9 as slaves, mostly living on the East Neck (Orienta). (Spikes 1991, p. 14)
Elizabeth Allair 5 male, 1 female names unknown From the census of slaves in Mamaroneck and Scarsdale, conducted by Captain Joseph Sutton on April 5th, 1755. The list included present day Rye Neck.
Daniel Barker 1 male, name unknown From the 1755 census.
Nicolas Baylie 1 male, 1 female, names unknown From the 1755 census.
Reuben Bloomer 1 male, name unknown From the 1755 census.
Underhill Budd 2 male, 2 female, names unknown From the 1755 census.
Joseph Cornell 1 male, 1 female, names unknown From the 1755 census.
Richard Cornell 2 male, 1 female, names unknown (1755 census), Aaron. Richard Cornell reported 3 slaves in 1755. In 1759, he purchased a farm from Josiah and Hannah Quinby (below) which included Aaron. (Spikes 1991, p. 16)
Richard Cornell Jr. 1 male, 1 female, name unknown From the 1755 census.
Hanah Disbrow 1 male, 1 female, names unknown From the 1755 census.
John Gidney 1 male, 1 female, names unknown From the 1755 census.
William Griffen 1 female, name unknown From the 1755 census.
Benjamin Griffin 1 female, name unknown From the 1755 census.
Jonathan Griffin 1 male, 1 female, names unknown From the 1755 census.
Thomas Hading 1 male, 1 female, names unknown (1755 census)

 

Frances, Robert, Mary Wems, Rose, Amos, Lazerus, Dennes, Jacob, Elenor (1761 will)

Thomas Hading (probably the same as Thomas Haden or Hadden) reports 1 male and 1 female slave in the 1755 census. In his 1761 will, he manumits “all my Negroes.” These include Mary Wems, Frances and Robert. Also, his “wench Rose” and his children, Amos, Lazerus, Dennes, Jacob and Elenor. According to Ossining historian Caroline Ranard Curvan, Lazerus, also known as Lazarus Heady, lived to age 99. He died in 1850 and was buried in the Heady Family Cemetery in New Castle.
Anthony Hill, Jr. 1 male, 1 female, names unknown From the 1755 census.
Edward Merrit 1 male, name unknown From the 1755 census. Probably the father and grandfather of the Edward Merritts below.
Benjamin Palmer 1 male, name unknown From the 1755 census.
Nehemiah Palmer 2 male, 1 female, name unknown From the 1755 census.
Nehemiah Palmer Jr 1 male, 1 female, names unknown From the 1755 census.
John Roads 1 male, name unknown From the 1755 census.
John Stevanson 2 males, 1 female, names unknown From the 1755 census.
Joseph Sutton 1 male, name unknown From the 1755 census.
John Tounsend
(probably John Townsend)
1 female, name unknown From the 1755 census.
Josiah and Hannah Quinby Aaron In 1759, the couple sold a farm to Richard Cornell. The sale included Aaron. Josiah Quinby served as Mamaroneck Town Supervisor in 1717. (Spikes 1991, p.16)
James Horton Jin In January 1, 1765, James Horton posted a Runaway Notice in the New York Mercury about Jin. James Horton may be related to Deborah Horton, listed below as having 7 slaves in the 1790 census.
Samuel Underhill Banjo Billy (William), Jinny (Jane), James, Charles, Michael William, Jesse and Benjamin. The names Banjo Billy and Jinny are those used by Ann Mott, granddaughter of Samuel Underhill, in stories complied by her grandson, Thomas C. Cornell: Adam and Anne Mott: Their Ancestors and their Descendants. In 1769, Samuel Underhill moved his household from Oyster Bay, Long Island to a farm in Mamaroneck, which included the mill on what is now called Premium Mill Pond. In 1772, he also purchased Little Neck, a part of Budd’s Neck, currently Shore Acres, Mamaroneck Village, Rye Town. In 1776, Billy and Jinny transferred to the home of James Mott to help care for the Underhill’s young grandchildren, whose mother (Ann Underhill Mott) had died. Samuel Underhill died in 1780. In his will, he manumitted William, Jane and all their living and future children, though he names only five. According to the recollections of Abigail Mott (Narratives of Colored Americans, p.182) Billy and Jinny raised nine sons and a daughter, some of whom may have been born after Underhill’s death.
 

James Mott

 

Banjo Billy (William), Jinny (Jane), Andrew and 3 others, names unknown. James Mott was a great-grandson of John Richbell and a distant relative of Captain James Mott (above). He was a wealthy Quaker merchant and preacher. He moved from New York City in 1776, to land at the Premium Mill Pond, purchased from his brother-in-law, Samuel Underhill (son of Samuel Underhill, above). (Spikes 2003, p.17). It’s unclear whether Billy and Jinny’s children also lived at the Mott’s as enslaved people before the entire family was manumitted by the will of the senior Samuel Underhill.

 

As Quakers, the Underhills and Motts were opposed to slavery. Yet, as late as the 1810 census, James Mott reports holding 3 slaves.

 

Township records also showed James Mott as purchasing Andrew for the purpose of freeing him two years before he would otherwise be eligible for freedom by New York law. Township records state: “I having purchased of Joshua Purdy a negro man named Andrew who is about 26 years of age, he has the promise of the person I bought him of that he should be free at 28 years of age, and as one object I had in view in the purchase was to secure his freedom, I do hereby declare the said Andrew to be a free man from the date hereof Mamaroneck 15th of May 1811.” Joshua Purdy lived in Rye.

Mary Elizabeth Gulot At least 2 enslaved people, number and names unknown In her will of January 29, 1776, Mary Elizabeth Gulot directs that her slaves be given a month to find new masters. They are to be “sold at private sale, and not at vandue.”
Eleazer Goddin John Cox According to the Book of Negroes, compiled in 1783, John Cox was born around 1755 and enslaved by Eleazer Goddin. Cox became a Black Loyalist, serving with the British in the Revolutionary War. Along with a wife and two children, he appears on the 1783 manifest of the Clinton, a ship transporting freed Black Loyalists to Annapolis, Nova Scotia.

They disembarked in Saint John, where they faced many hardships, including racist restrictions on their new-found freedom. Jeremy Cox, who marries in nearby Gagetown in 1806, may be John’s son.

Ben Cole Andrew Cole The Book of Negroes lists Andrew Cole, born around 1757, as enslaved by Ben Cole. Andrew Cole and his wife Mary are on the same passenger manifest as John Cox, (above) disembarking in Nova Scotia. Later, Andrew Cole may have emigrated to Sierra Leone, where he was promised greater freedom and land.
William Sutton Jane William Sutton is the father of Joseph Sutton. Township records show Joseph purchased Jane from his father’s estate on July 27, 1786. He then frees Jane on July 28th, 1786.  (Mamaroneck Township Records, p. 94.).

 

William Sutton was a Mamaroneck Town Supervisor and lived on land we know today as Orienta. (Spikes, 1991, p. 25) He is mentioned in the 1752 will of his father, John Sutton

Joseph Sutton Jane Town records show Joseph Sutton purchasing Jane on July 27, 1786 and freeing her on July 8, 1786.
Peter Allaire Jack and three others, names unknown Peter Allaire appears in the census of 1790 as holding 4 slaves. The Allaire family owned much of the land now called Larchmont Manor. For a map of the Allaire estate, see Spikes, (1991, p. 32 and 33)

In January of 1790, Jack ran away.  Peter Allaire posted a Runaway Notice in the Connecticut Courant  that said Jack called himself “Free Man John”.

The 1800 census shows Peter Allaire with 4 slaves; probably Jack was one of the four.

Oliver Belly (Bayley) 1, name unknown Oliver Belly (also spelled Bayley) appears in the census of 1790 as holding one slave. He lived north of the Post Road bordering on New Rochelle. (Spikes, 1991, p. 13)
Gilbert Budd, Jr. At least 12, including Susannah, Harry, Jack, Bet, Pheby, Phebe, Daniel, Hannah, Henry, Peter, Peter Jr., Sarah, Charles, Hannibal, Jack Purdy and Eliza Gilbert Budd lived on the East Neck. (Spikes, 1991, p. 34) As the Mamaroneck Township Clerk, he entered many of the records of slave ownership and manumission.

The enslaved people listed here by name are identified in various records as being owned by Gilbert Budd, Jr. The 1790 census lists 12 slaves in his household, the 1800 census lists 9, and the 1810 lists 8. But other records of ownership, deaths and births do not square with the census numbers.

For example, Budd started 1790 with 12 slaves, then freed one in 1799, and acquired two more by birth, presumably leaving him with 13. Yet the 1800 census has him with 9. Perhaps, 4 died or were sold.

Similarly, he started 1800 with 9 slaves, then freed 1 and acquired 5 by birth, which should have totaled 13. Yet the 1810 census shows only 8.

Harry appears in the Township records as being set free by Budd on November 17, 1798.

Susannah appears in Township records p. 94. as being purchased by Gilbert Budd, Jr. on October 5, 1793. This is probably the same person (also known as Suck) who appears in the subsequent record as being freed by Budd on September 16, 1795.

Jack appears in the Township records as being set free by Budd on March 27, 1799. This may be the same person as Jack Purdy, listed as the father of Eliza in 1809.

Bet appears in the Mamaroneck Township records as the mother of Pheby, who was born on July 12, 1799, and registered by Budd as his property. Bet is probably the same person listed as mother to Peter (1802), Charles (1805), and Eliza (1809).

Phebe appears in the Mamaroneck Township records as the mother of Daniel, who was born on July 8, 1799, and registered by Budd for more than 2 decades of indentured servitude.

Hannah appears in the Mamaroneck Township records as the mother of Henry, born on November 11, 1800, and of Sarah, born on November 22, 1802. Budd registered both children for more than 2 decades of indentured servitude.

Bet reappears in the Mamaroneck Township records as mother of Peter, born on February 1, 1802. This is probably the same woman as Pheby’s mother, above.

Peter appears in the Mamaroneck Township records as the father of Sarah (whose mother was Hannah, above).

Bet reappears in the records as mother to Charles, who was born on September 10, 1805, and registered by Budd for more than 2 decades of indentured servitude.

Hannibal appears in the Mamaroneck Township records as being set free on August 20, 1808.

Jack Purdy appears in the Mamaroneck Township records as the father of Eliza, born on October 26, 1809; Bet is listed as the mother. This may be the same Jack freed by Gilbert Budd in 1799 (see above). However, Eliza’s status was based on her mother’s enslavement. Budd registered Eliza for more than 2 decades of indentured servitude.

Elizabeth H. Duncan 1, name unknown Elizabeth Duncan appears in the 1790 census as having 1 slave.
Absolom Gidney 4, names unknown Absolom Gidney appears in the 1790 census as having 4 slaves.
Isaac Gidney, Sr. 1, name unknown Isaac Gidney appears in the 1790 census as having 1 slave. He is the grandson of Eleazor Gedney, for whom the Eleazor Gedney Burial Ground in Mamaroneck is named.
Benjamin Griffen 5-7, possibly Peg, James and Jack and 2-4 with names unknown Benjamin Griffin appears in the 1790 census as having 5 slaves.  He might have been related to Henry Griffen who operated a storehouse in Mamaroneck. (For more about the Griffens, see Spikes, 1991, p. 13) This may be the same Benjamin Griffen who freed Peg, according to Town records, on March 27, 1799.

Father (1717-1792) and son (1753-1798) both went by Benjamin Griffin.

In July, 1784 James ran away, and Benjamin Griffen (most likely the father but possibly the son) posted a Runaway Notice in the New York Packet and the American Advertiser.

In November, 1796, another slave named Jack ran away, and this time Benjamin Griffen, the son, posted a Runaway Notice in Greenleaf’s New York Journal and the Patriotic Register.

Bartholomew Hadden 3, names unknown Bartholomew Hadden appears in the 1790 census as having 3 slaves. He may be the same person listed in the 1755 census for the Borough of Westchester (now, the Bronx) as enslaving Jerre and Will.
Deborah Horton At least 7, names unknown. Charley, Charles Johnson and Andrew may be additional slaves or some of those listed without names in the 1799 census. Deborah Horton appears in the 1790 census as having 7 slaves, and in 1800 as having 5 slaves. She reported none in 1810 or 1820, but set one free (Andrew, below) in 1822. She lived on the East Neck, today called Orienta. (Spikes, 1991, p. 34)

According to Township records, Deborah Horton freed Charles on March 27, 1799. She freed Charles Johnson on April 4, 1801. There is a “Charles Johnson” who appears in the “other free persons” category in the New York City census of 1810.

Township records show she freed Andrew on January 17, 1822.

Edward Merritt Gin, Peg, Harry and at least 5 others with names unknown. Probably Edward Merritt (June 4, 1753-November 14, 1803), son of Edward Merrit (above) and father to Edward Merritt (below).

This Edward Merritt appears in the 1790 census as holding 8 slaves, in 1800 holding 8, and in 1810 with none. Gin was the mother of Peg, born on March 29, 1800, and registered by Edward Merritt as his property. Harry appears in a Runaway Notice in the New York Commercial Advertiser filed in 1803 by the executrix of the estate of Edward “Merrill’s (probably Merritt’s).

John Merritt 5, names unknown John Merritt appears in the 1790 census as holding 5 slaves.
Mary Palmer 2, names unknown Mary Palmer appears in the 1790 census as holding 2 slaves.
Charles Rowe 1, name unknown Charles Rowe appears in the 1790 census as holding 1 slave.
Giles Simmons 1, name unknown Giles Simmons appears in the 1790 census as holding 1 slave.
Mary Sutton 2, names unknown Mary Sutton appears in the 1790 census as holding 2 slaves. She may have been related to William Sutton, listed above. She might also have been related to Joseph Sutton who operated a storehouse in Mamaroneck. (For more about the Suttons, see Spikes, 1991, p. 13)
Charles E. Duncan Esther, Charlot and 1 other, name unknown Charlot was born on November 18, 1799, daughter of Esther, and was registered by Charles E. Duncan for more than 2 decades of indentured servitude. Duncan purchased land in 1799 on the north side of the Post Road near the New Rochelle border. (Spikes, 1991, p. 31)
Henry Disinborough, Jr. 4, names unknown Henry Disinborough, Jr. appears in the 1800 census as holding 4 slaves.
Esther Griffin 1, name unknown Esther Griffin appears in the 1800 census as holding 1 slave.
William Grey 1, name unknown William Grey appears in the 1800 census as holding 1 slave.
Edward Merritt Harry Edward Merritt here is probably the son of Edward Merritt from the 1790 census (above). Township records indicate that this Merritt set Harry free on March 27, 1799.

 

 

John Pinkney 1, name unknown John Pinkney appears in the 1800 census as holding 1 slave, and in the 1810 census with 1, which may be the same enslaved individual.
Nathaniel Sacket 2, names unknown Nathaniel Sacket appears in the 1800 census as holding 2 slaves.
 

John Sands

2, names unknown John Sands appears in the 1800 census as holding 2 slaves. John Sands might be a relative of Nathaniel Sands, who lived on land along Weaver Street. (See Spikes, 1991, note 406.)
William Thompson Nelly, Sally Sally was born on April 15, 1800, daughter of Nelly, and was registered by William Thompson for more than 2 decades of indentured servitude.
Peter Jay Munro Candice, Nelly, Charlot, Prince Nixon, Andrew Hopper Peter Jay Munro was the original resident of the Manor House in Larchmont and a nephew of John Jay, the first Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court. Munro does not appear as a slaveholder in the Mamaroneck U.S. Census in 1790. He maintained his legal residence in New York City and reported 4 slaves to the census there in 1790. However, Mamaroneck Township records show he freed Candice on November 19, 1803, and reported the birth of Charlot, to mother Nelly, on May 25, 1814. In 1808, Prince Nixon was sentenced to life imprisonment for burglary, according to Newgate prison admission records. In 1818, Munro emancipated Anthony Hopper, as documented in New York Manumission Society records.
David Rogers Plato, Lilly, Nanny, Harry Rogers Census records show David Rogers had no slaves in 1790, 1 in 1800 and 3 in 1810. Township records show Plato was born on September 24, 1803, with no parents identified, and was registered by Rogers for more than 2 decades of indentured servitude. Nanny was born on December 18, 1806, daughter of Lilly, and was registered by Rogers for more than 2 decades of indentured servitude.

Township records show David Rogers freed Harry on May 25, 1813.

 

John Peter DeLancey

3, names unknown (from 1790,1810 NYC census).

 

Nanny Pott, Tom Pott, Tom Pott, Jr., Tamar Pott, Jack Purdy, Dorothea (or Dorathea), Lewis, George, a child named Anne or Nancey.

 

Margaret (Peg), unnamed person, Tom, Peter, Peter’s wife, Abraham, Sam, Phebe, Nanny, Nanny’s baby, Betty Halley, Lewis and Michael are referenced in the DeLancey Family papers.

 

A female cook, her daughter Harriet, her son Henry, and several children, names unknown

Angevine

John Peter Delancey (also spelled D’Lancey, 1753-1828), was a Revolutionary War loyalist soldier and father of William Heathcote DeLancey (1797-1865), a well-known Protestant Episcopal clergyman and provost of the University of Pennsylvania. He maintained homes in New York City and in Mamaroneck.

He reported 2 slaves in NYC in the 1790 census, none in 1800, and 1 in 1810. However, for this period, Township  records and other documents show enslavement in Mamaroneck.

DeLancey manumitted Jack, on November 15, 1808, and registered four babies of enslaved parents for two decades of indentured servitude.

The babies included two born to Nanny and Tom Pott: Tom Pott, Jr. born September 25, 1805 and Tamar, born April 21, 1808. George was born October 10, 1809 to Dorothea and Lewis. Anne or Nancey was born October 12, 1814 to Harriet.

The following transactions are documented in the Bills of Sale in the DeLancey Family Papers, Museum of the City of New York. The source is the Mamaroneck History Facebook page.

  • 1793 March 29: Margaret (Peg) 10 yrs old, $30 – for life – from Charity & Jonathon Purdy, Executors of Joseph Purdy’s estate (White Plains)
  • 1793 April 13: Report: “Slave given to Elizabeth Delancey, John Peter’s wife.”
  • 1795 June 30: Tom 15 yrs old, $85 – for life – from Benjamin Decker of Northfield, Richmond County (Staten Island)
  • 1796 September 07: Simon (Sime) 25 yrs old, $100 – for life – from Abraham Van Alen of Kinderhook, Columbia County (upstate almost to Albany)
  • 1797 March 24: Peter 45 yrs old, wife 35 yrs old, Abraham 5 yrs old, Sam 9 mths old, $180 – for life – from Valentine Nutter of New York City
  • 1797 April 13:  Description & Reward for a runaway slave, Simon. Simon also escapes in 1809 as documented in 1809 Runaway Notice John P. De Lancey pursues Sam or Simon Woodbeck.
  • 1798 August: 10 Phebe 16 yrs old, $60 from H. G. Livingston of New York City
  • 1803 March 30: Jack Purdy 30 yrs old, purchased for 5 years from Hakaliah Purdy.
  • 1804 February 07: Nanny (Nan) 22 and her baby sold to Bartholemew Ward of Mamaroneck
  • 1805 April 22: Nanny 23 yrs old, and infant, $80 purchased for 5 years, back from Bartholemew Ward.
  • 1806 April 14:  Betty Halley 16 yrs old, $125 purchased for 8 years from Ruth Ward, Eastchester. “Which manumission is to take place at the end of eight years from the first day of May next, which will be in the year one thousand eight hundred and fourteen – provided, however, if the maid Betty should have a child or children during her servitude she will serve one additional year for every child before she is entitled to her freedom, a witness my hand and seal this fourteenth day of April, 1806.” Signed, J.P. De Lancey
  • 1806 May: Lewis, boy, $250 purchased for 12 years.
  • 1807 May 14: Betty Halley sold to Peter Underhill
  • 1809: Mike (Michael), boy, $100 purchased for 5 years, 8 mths.
  • 1809 March 02: This entry is NOT about J.P. De Lancey. “I just thought you might like to know that Jack Purdy, former “time servant” of J.P. De Lancey (purchased for five years in 1803) fathered a daughter Eliza with Gilbert Budd’s slave Bet.” This suggests that, now a freeman, Jack remained in Mamaroneck.

The references to Harriet, Henry several small children and a female cook are in Small Family Memories.

Angevine is mentioned in documentation of the Angevine Cemetery in Scarsdale: “Cooper’s father-in-law John Peter Delancey may have owned a slave named Angevine at Heathcote Hill.”

Christopher Hubbs Jack Jack appears in Township records as being freed by Christopher Hubbs on November 15, 1808.
Jane Merritt (or Merrill) Grace, Benjamin, Harry (also called Tuder) Jane Merrill is probably Jane Merritt, wife of Edward Merritt (above) who died in 1803.

Jane Merritt registered Benjamin with the Town, born February 28, 1808, to Grace. She reports only one slave in the 1810 census.

In March 1808, “Jane Merrill” posted a Runaway Notice in the New York Commercial Advertiser for a slave called Harry. The double “l” and double “t” are easily confused when reading antique fonts.  The notice states that Harry belonged to “the estate of Edward Merrill.”

John Darby 1, name unknown John Darby appears in the 1810 census as holding one slave.
Henry Merritt 1, name unknown Henry Merritt appears in the 1810 census as holding 1 slave.
James Gray Rose, Telemaque Rose and Telemaque appear in the Township records as being set free by James Gray on December 12, 1810.
John Pinkney Catherine Catherine appears in the Township records as being set free by John Pinkney on April 2, 1811.
James Mott Andrew Andrew appears in the Township records as being freed on May 17, 1811 by James Mott, who purchased him for that purpose. The Township record states: “I having purchased of Joshua Purdy a negro man named Andrew who is about 26 years of age, he has the promise of the person I bought him of that he should be free at 28 years of age, and as one object I had in view in the purchase was to secure his freedom, I do hereby declare the said Andrew to be a free man from the date hereof Mamaroneck 15th of May 1811.” Joshua Purdy lived in Rye.
Jack Budd Mary Jack Mary Jack appears in the Township records as being freed by Jack Budd on December 12, 1812.
Joseph Haight Harry Harry appears in the Township records as being freed on March 20, 1817.
Note: Book references are to Spikes, Judith Doolin, Larchmont New York, People and Places, (Larchmont NY, Fountain Square Books, 1991) and Spikes, Judith Doolin, Images of America – Larchmont (Arcadia Publishing, 2003). The images of James Mott and Jinny and Banjo Billy are from page 17, Images of America – Larchmont. Lists of Inhabitants of Colonial New York (Excerpted from The Documentary History of the State of New York)

Note: This post is based on information presented first by Ned Benton in a Larchmont Historical Society presentation in 2006. Originally, there were separate tables for the slaves and the slaveholders.  The merged table above includes revisions and additions made in December 2016, 2021 and 2024.